Does the First COVID-19 Vaccine Dose Offer Protection for Patients With Multiple Myeloma?
Posted: Tuesday, May 18, 2021
Kevin Boyd, PhD, of The Institute of Cancer Research (ICR), London, and colleagues conducted a study to determine the efficacy of the SARS–CoV-2 vaccination in patients with multiple myeloma. This study demonstrated a 70% total antibody rate after the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, suggesting protection from the virus may be provided for many patients with multiple myeloma. Their findings were published in The Lancet Haematology.
“This study is not reassuring for every patient, as we do see reduced vaccine response rates compared with the general population,” stated Dr. Boyd in an ICR press release. “However, overall, the results are encouraging, showing that the majority of patients do respond to their first vaccine dose, and I expect this to improve following the second dose.”
The investigators assessed 93 patients with multiple myeloma who had an anti–SARS–CoV-2 spike protein S1 IgG antibody test result at least 3 weeks after their first Pfizer or AstraZeneca vaccination. Participants received a median of one previous line of therapy, with 66 patients currently undergoing treatment. At the time of vaccination, 48 patients achieved a complete or very good partial response, 16 reached a partial response, and 27 had stable disease; 43 patients exhibited immunoparesis.
About 56% of patients (n = 52) tested positive for SARS–CoV-2 IgG antibodies, with no difference in the percentage of positive results between both vaccines (P = .84). Seropositive rates differed depending on disease state, with patients who displayed a partial response (75%) faring better than those with a good response (63%) or stable or progressive disease (30%).
Positive IgG antibody results were discovered in seven patients before vaccination, suggesting they may have had a previous COVID-19 infection. Of the 41 IgG-negative patients, 40 were evaluated for other antibodies such as IgM and IgA. A total antibody assay gave a positive result in 13 of these individuals (33%), bringing the total positive antibody rate to 70% after a single dose of the COVID-19 vaccine.
Disclosure: For full disclosures of the study authors, visit thelancet.com.