Posted: Wednesday, February 24, 2021
Jorge E. Cortes, MD, of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, and colleagues utilized CPX-351—a dual drug liposomal encapsulation of daunorubicin and cytarabine—for the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed, high-risk or secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML). At the 2021 Transplantation & Cellular Therapy Meetings (TCT), the researchers reported improved overall survival with CPX-351 versus conventional 7+3 chemotherapy at 5-year follow-up, regardless of patient age (Abstract 135).
This phase III study enrolled a total of 309 patients, aged 60 to 75, with newly diagnosed high-risk or secondary AML. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive one to two induction cycles of 100 units/m2 of CPX-351 or conventional 7+3 chemotherapy. Individuals who achieved complete remission or complete remission with incomplete platelet or neutrophil recovery were allowed to receive up to two consolidation cycles.
The estimated survival rates at 3 and 5 years for the CPX-351 and 7+3 groups were 21% versus 9% and 18% versus 8%, respectively. The most common primary cause of death in both groups was progressive leukemia.
The improved median overall survival in patients aged 60 to 69 given CDX-351 and 7+3 was observed to be better than in patients aged 70 to 75 (9.59 and 6.87 months vs. 8.87 and 5.62 months). The estimated survival rate for participants who underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation was higher in the CPX-351 group versus the 7+3 group (56% vs. 23%). The estimated survival rates at 3 and 5 years for patients in the CDX-351 group who achieved complete remission or complete remission with incomplete platelet or neutrophil recovery were better than those in the 7+3 group at both time points (36% vs. 23% and 30% vs. 19%). The median overall survival for these individuals on CDX-351 and 7+3 were 21.72 and 10.41 months, respectively.
Disclosure: For full disclosures of study authors, visit tct.confex.com.