AACR 2021: Prostate Cancer Risk, Obesity, and Diabetes
Posted: Thursday, April 22, 2021
At the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting 2021, Ilir Agalliu, MD, ScD, of Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, and colleagues presented their research regarding the combined and independent effects of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus on the risk of prostate cancer in a racially diverse population. These researchers explained that both obesity and type 2 diabetes were independently associated with high-risk prostate cancer, and patients with both comorbidities seemed to have a higher risk of developing intermediate- and high-risk disease (Abstract LB087).
“Potential biological pathways of insulin signaling and inflammatory factors arising from adipokines could be involved in promoting more aggressive prostate cancer phenotypes,” explained the investigators.
Demographic, pathologic, and clinical data including body mass index, obesity, and type 2 diabetes status at the time of prostate cancer diagnosis was obtained for 1,366 patients who underwent a radical prostatectomy. Individuals were classified into three, National Comprehensive Cancer Network prostate cancer risk groups (low, intermediate, and high) based on their tumor stage, diagnostic serum prostate-specific antigen levels, and pathologic Gleason score.
The average patient age was 60 ± 6.9 years, with 37.2% being Black and 31.5% being Hispanic. Obesity and type 2 diabetes affected 29.4% and 28% of participants, respectively; Black patients had the highest frequency of both type 2 diabetes (43.6%) and obesity (38.1%). Additionally, a significant number of individuals were at intermediate (64%) or high risk (14%) for developing prostate cancer.
Obesity correlated with 2.23 increased odds of high-risk prostate cancer, whereas type 2 diabetes was associated with 1.53 increased odds of intermediate-risk disease. In addition, an interaction analysis demonstrated that men who were obese and had type 2 diabetes had increased risks of both intermediate- (odds ratio = 1.99) and high-risk (odds ratio = 2.28) prostate cancer compared with leaner individuals without diabetes.
Disclosure: The study authors reported no conflicts of interest.